PUBLICATIONS

2018     Asian Development Bank
Compendium of Best Practices in Road Asset Management. Asian Development Bank, Manila, The Philippines.

This compendium presents the best practices for the introduction and development of road asset management based on a desktop review of the experiences in the 11 member countries of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program. These best practices reflect common problems the different CAREC member countries face, and the most successful solutions in the development of road asset management applied by CAREC and non-CAREC countries. This compendium also provides a general introduction to the concept of road asset management and presents an overview of the status of road asset management in each CAREC country.

2016     Asian Development Bank
Myanmar Transport Sector Policy Note: Rural Roads and Access. Asian Development Bank, Manila, The Philippines.

This study shows how rural access in Myanmar is severely limited, with an estimated 70% of all villages lacking all-season road access, affecting a population of around 20 million people, nearly half of which lack road access altogether. Isolation and poverty form a vicious cycle in Myanmar as in other countries, and improving rural access is necessary to reduce rural poverty. Rural roads and rural transport services are fundamental to reducing rural poverty and enabling social and economic development. Evidence from Myanmar, and from around the world, makes it clear that access to markets and services is crucial for stimulating rural productivity and development. Providing all-season access to all villages would involve constructing about 100,000 km of roads and upgrading 75,000 km of existing roads. To meet the challenge to provide universal access within 15 years, this report recommends a significant increase in funding for rural roads, the allocation of funding to the provision of basic access, the professionalization of roadwork implementation, and improved allocation of responsibility for rural road management and ownership.

2016     Asian Development Bank
Myanmar Transport Sector Policy Note: Trunk RoadsAsian Development Bank, Manila, The Philippines .

This study of the trunk road sector shows that Myanmar’s road network needs rehabilitation, improvement and ultimately, total modernization, but that sector reform and capacity development should be a medium-term agenda of equal priority to that of road network modernization. The trunk road sector’s present organization and long-standing policies are obstacles to the rapid modernization of the trunk road network. This policy note identifies policy options and capacity development needs, and where possible, identifies policy suggestions that could be implemented over the coming years. Altogether, it is suggested that the government undertake an ambitious program of reforms and capacity development efforts over the next 5 years. This program could set the foundations for transforming Myanmar’s current road institutions into a high-performing sector, able to deliver quality services to users.

2013     World Bank
Nepal Road Sector Assessment Study - Main Report and Annexes. World Bank, Kathmandu, Nepal. 

This Road Sector Assessment Study presents the current status of the road sector in Nepal, identifies the main issues and problems it is facing, and provides practical means to address them. It serves to provide a basis for determining the way forward for the road sector in Nepal, assisting the Government of Nepal to identify the necessary steps to be undertaken with support from its road sector development partners. The study covers several topics that have been looked at in detail for both the Strategic Road Network (SRN) and the Local Road Network (LRN). The Main Report provides a summary of the most important issues and the recommended actions, while detailed study notes relating to the different topics are included in the Annexes.

2013     Pacific Region Infrastructure Facility

This study aims to capture the best practices in involving local firms and workers in road infrastructure project delivery in Pacific Island Countries and to inform next steps for increased participation. The report focuses on a review of experiences in seven Pacific Island Countries (Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Vanuatu, Kiribati and Papua New Guinea) through a combination of desk reviews and visits to the countries concerned. The subsequent analysis of information has looked at the four key components of encouraging private sector development in the road sector: i) policies, guidance, controls and incentives, ii) models of local participation, iii) capacity building efforts and iv) contract and project structuring. This report presents the main findings of the study from the perspective of each of the countries covered, as well as from a regional perspective.

2012     Asian Development Bank
Performance-based Routine Maintenance of Rural Roads - Manual for Maintenance Groups. ADB, Manila, Philippines. ISBN: 978-92-9092-935-2 (print), 978-92-9092-936-9 (web)
Also available in Chinese: 绩效型养路队农村公路日常养护: 养路队手册 ISBN 978-92-9254-004-3 (print), 978-92-9254-005-0 (web)

This manual is the outcome of the small-scale technical assistance (SSTA) pilot project linked to the Yunnan Integrated Road Network Development Project. The SSTA pilot project built on the experience of a previous pilot project on Community-Based Routine Road Maintenance by Women’s Groups, which was financed by the ADB Gender and Development Cooperation Fund. The SSTA sought to improve the approach developed under the first pilot project by introducing performance-based payments with the aim of reducing the resources required for supervision and inspection. It also aimed to improve the financial sustainability of the approach by reducing the investments required and promoting policy changes regarding the use of road maintenance funding. This manual guides the maintenance groups at the operational level in the use of appropriate tools and techniques in their work. It teaches the maintenance group members technical and managerial skills for routine maintenance of rural roads, based on the experience gained from the two pilot projects carried out in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province.

2012     Asian Development Bank
Performance-based Routine Maintenance of Rural Roads - Guide for Communications Bureaus. ADB, Manila, Philippines. ISBN: 978-92-9092-933-8 (print), 978-92-9092-934-5 (web)
Also available in Chinese: 绩效型养路队农村公路日常养护: 交通局指南 ISBN 978-92-9092-933-8 (print), 978-92-9092-934-5 (web)

This guide is the outcome of a small-scale technical assistance (SSTA) pilot project linked to the Yunnan Integrated Road Network Development Project. The SSTA pilot project built upon the experience of a previous pilot project on Community-Based Routine Road Maintenance by Women’s Groups, which was financed by the ADB Gender and Development Cooperation Fund. The SSTA pilot project sought to improve the approach developed under the earlier pilot project by introducing performance-based payments with the aim of reducing the resources required for supervision and inspection. It also aimed to improve the financial sustainability of the approach by reducing the investments required and promoting policy changes regarding the use of road maintenance funding. This guide describes the deterioration process of rural roads and the need for a proper system of routine maintenance to reduce costs and improve road conditions. It explains how to organize, train, and contract maintenance groups for routine maintenance of rural roads, based on the experience gained from the two pilot projects carried out in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province. Special attention is given to performance-based contracting and the related performance indicators and monthly inspections. 

2011     International Labour Organisation
Local investments for climate change adaptation: Green jobs through green works. ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. ISBN: 9789221247685; 9789221247692 (web pdf)

This guide introduces an approach for infrastructure development and public works in the context of climate change adaptation. It links adaptation with poverty reduction and employment creation. It introduces a local resource-based approach and demonstrates how green jobs can be created through green works.


2011     Appropriate Technology
Community groups take to the roads. Appropriate Technology, Volume 38, Number 4, September 2011.

This article describes the pilot experiences in Nepal and China involving community groups in the maintenance of rural roads. Whereas in Nepal the groups were mixed, in China the groups consisted of only women. The article describes the system applied in each country, the resulting costs and how these investments resulted in the creation of sustainable local employment.


2011     Asian Development Bank

This publication describes the outcomes of a pilot project, Community-Based Rural Road Maintenance by Women Ethnic Minority Groups in Western Yunnan, which was financed by the Gender and Development Cooperation Fund of the Asian Development Bank. The purpose of the project was to assist maintenance groups in western Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China, in organizing and carrying out the routine maintenance of unpaved township and village roads. The pilot project sought to involve women and other vulnerable populations (such as indigenous minorities) in rural road maintenance projects, both to undertake badly needed improvements in rural roads, and to create employment opportunities for them. Women—particularly those from indigenous minority groups—have been empowered as a result of the new opportunities and training.


2011     Asian Development Bank
Also available in Chinese: 社区型妇女养路队道路日常养护—养护队手册. ISBN 978-92-9092-440-1

This manual is aimed at women's maintenance groups responsible for the routine maintenance of rural roads (including earthen, gravel, and stone-paved roads). It details the different activities to be carried out by the maintenance groups to keep the road in good condition by preventing damage and carrying out minor repairs. It explains the planning and organization of the work, as well as how county communications bureaus responsible for these roads contract the groups. This manual was written as part of a pilot project supported by the Gender and Development Cooperation Fund of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). This pilot project aims to show that women can effectively participate in the maintenance of rural roads, resulting in improved road conditions and better access for those that rely on roads, and to create employment opportunities and incomes for the women themselves. It also identifies specific issues regarding the participation of women in rural road maintenance, defining solutions for facilitating their participation. These solutions are to be incorporated in a project on rural road maintenance in Dehong Prefecture to be financed by ADB. This manual is complemented by a guide that was developed under the same Gender and Development Cooperation Fund pilot project.

2011     Asian Development Bank
Community-based routine maintenance of roads by women's groups - Guide for communication bureaus. ADB, Manila, Philippines. ISBN 978-92-9092-361-9 (web) or 978-92-9092-336-7 (print)
Also available in Chinese: 社区型妇女养路队道路日常养护—交通局指南. ISBN 978-92-9092-442-5

This guide describes how to implement a system of community-based rural road maintenance involving groups of women, specifically in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China. It was written as part of a pilot project supported by the Gender and Development Cooperation Fund of the Asian Development Bank. This pilot project aims to show that women can effectively participate in the maintenance of rural roads, resulting in improved road conditions and better access for those who rely on roads, and in creating employment opportunities and incomes for women. It also serves to identify specific issues in the participation of women in rural road maintenance, while defining solutions that facilitate their involvement. This guide is complemented by a manual that was developed under the same Gender and Development Cooperation Fund pilot project.

2011     Cartier van Dissel, S.
Community groups take to the roads. In: IFRTD Forum news 15-4.


2010     Cartier van Dissel, S.
Microenterprise-based routine maintenance - The Latin American approach. In: Route/Roads 346, PIARC (World Road Association).

2009     Cartier van Dissel, S.
Also available in Nepalese

Team-based maintenance refers to every-day maintenance of rural roads by local maintenance teams, including the clearing and cleaning of the different road elements, the carrying out of minor repairs and the creation of basic road protection measures. The maintenance teams are formed by local people living along the road, who are contracted by the DDC and work together to maintain the road. This Conceptual Guide provides a detailed overview of this approach that was piloted by the ILO in two districts: Dhanusha (Terai) and Ramechhap (Hills). Based on the lessons learned during these pilots, this guide has been developed to be used by DoLIDAR, DDC’s and rural road programmes in the introduction and implementation of team-based maintenance. It is the objective of this guide to promote labour-based preventative maintenance of rural roads with an aim of improving the general condition of the rural road network and creating local employment. This guide presents a practical means of implementing cost-effective maintenance of rural roads in Nepal, aimed at the prevention of (serious) damage to rural roads, whilst taking into account the economic and human resources available at local level. 

2009     Cartier van Dissel, S.
Also available in Nepalese

Team-based maintenance refers to every-day maintenance of rural roads by local maintenance teams, including the clearing and cleaning of the different road elements, the carrying out of minor repairs and the creation of basic road protection measures. The maintenance teams are formed by local people living along the road, who are contracted by the DDC and work together to maintain the road. This Implementation Manual complements the Conceptual Guide and is aimed specifically at the maintenance teams responsible for implementing the team-based maintenance activities. It is meant to be used as a training manual during the initial training of these teams and as a reference manual during the execution of the activities. 

2009     Cartier van Dissel, S.
Also available in Nepalese

This guide provides a framework for implementing community infrastructure development in urban areas in Nepal, aimed at creating jobs whilst improving low-income settlements. After a brief introduction of basic data on urban development and poverty and an explanation of the relationship between poverty and infrastructure development, this guide presents community contracting as a means of creating employment and incomes, whilst at the same time improving the access of the poor living in low-income settlements to basic services. The guide goes into detail regarding the different steps involved in community infrastructure development in urban areas, presenting experiences from four pilot projects carried out in Nepal to further illustrate the problems to be faced and the recommended solutions.

2009     Cartier van Dissel, S.

Este documento describe el componente Promoción de Empleo e Ingresos en las Obras de Rehabilitación y Reconstrucción del Programa Conjunto Post Stan. Este programa fue implementado por el Sistema de las Naciones Unidas en respuesta al impacto ocasionado en Guatemala por la tormenta tropical Stan en Octubre del 2005. El documento fue elaborado en base a los informes mensuales y de cierre de los consultores contratados por la OIT para implementar el componente, así como a la información obtenida en la supervisión del mismo. El documento busca describir la estrategia de implementación usada y los resultados obtenidos, a la misma vez identificando los principales problemas enfrentados y dando recomendaciones para su superación en proyectos similares en el futuro.

2009     Cartier van Dissel, S.
Contratación Comunitaria (Folleto). ILO, Geneva.  

Este folleto describe el enfoque de contratación comunitaria que promueve que las propias comunidades usuarias o beneficiarias de proyectos públicos o privados de infraestructura social y económica y de servicios locales de pequeña escala puedan asumir la gestión y ejecución de dichos proyectos en calidad de contratista local.

2009     Cartier van Dissel, S.

La Planificación Integrada del Acceso Rural (PIAR) es una herramienta de planificación para el nivel local. Es una herramienta multisectoral para la priorización de inversiones en las zonas rurales con el fin de optimizar su impacto en el acceso de la población rural a los servicios socio-económicos que necesita para satisfacer sus necesidades básicas. Este paquete modular de capacitación está dirigido a capacitadores en PIAR. El documento está dividido en módulos que se pueden desarrollar cada uno por separado, o pueden ser combinados. Brinda las herramientas necesarias para conducir un curso de capacitación de la PIAR, incluyendo la teoría, las presentaciones y los ejercicios a ser utilizados. Además incluye notas para el capacitador, explicando para cada módulo qué preparaciones hacer, qué materiales tener a mano y cómo organizar las presentaciones y ejercicios. Este paquete modular de capacitación contiene todos los materiales a ser compartidos con los participantes del curso, los cuales pueden fácilmente ser copiados. Además contiene un CD-ROM con las presentaciones de cada módulo y las versiones digitales de los diferentes documentos a ser distribuido entre los participantes. Estos últimos pueden imprimirse o copiarse en un CD-ROM para los participantes del curso.

2008     Cartier van Dissel, S.

This report gives an overview of the study carried out regarding the potential for implementation of team-based routine road maintenance of rural roads in China. It gives an overview of the concept as applied in the two pilot projects and describes the process used and the decisions taken in the introduction of the concept, paying particular attention to the problems faced in adapting the Latin American concept to the Chinese context.

2008     Cartier van Dissel, S.

This 4-page document gives a brief overview of the study and describes the main aspects of the concept of routine road maintenance teams as applied in the two pilot projects in Ganxian County, Jiangxi Province.

2008     Cartier van Dissel, S.

This guide is directed at the staff of the Communication Bureaus in charge of the maintenance of paved rural roads. It explains the benefits of sustainable routine maintenance of these roads, and presents how this may be achieved by contracting labor-based routine maintenance teams formed by local people living along the road. To this end it describes in detail the different aspects of team-based routine road maintenance and explains the process for the formation of the maintenance teams.

2008     Cartier van Dissel, S.

This manual explains the different management issues related to the routine maintenance of paved rural roads by maintenance teams. It looks at the team management, the management of conflicts and the financial management of the team incomes and expenditures, as well as the content of the routine maintenance contract document. Particular attention is paid to the planning and organization of the maintenance activities throughout the year and amongst the different team members. This manual forms the basis for the managerial training that the maintenance teams will receive when they start working, as well as for the assistance they will receive during the initial period of their contract. This manual also forms a reference document for the maintenance teams in the management of the team and of the routine maintenance of the rural roads. It should be used together with the Technical Manual for Routine Road Maintenance Teams.

2008     Cartier van Dissel, S.

This manual explains the different technical issues related to the routine maintenance of paved rural roads by maintenance teams, paying particular attention to the different maintenance activities, the required tools and materials, and the performance indicators. It forms the basis for the technical training that the maintenance teams will receive when they start working, as well as for the technical assistance they will receive during the initial period of their contract. This manual also forms a reference document for the maintenance teams in carrying out the routine maintenance of the rural roads. It should be used together with the Managerial Manual for Routine Road Maintenance Teams.

2007     Cartier van Dissel, S.

Based on the critical aspects of the microenterprise-based routine road maintenance concept identified in the document on Latin American experiences, this document describes the existing practices in China as well as identifying possible weaknesses and recommended improvements. The analysis and recommendations of this document are based on a preliminary assessment of the current arrangements for the routine maintenance of Chinese rural roads. As part of this preliminary assessment, visits were carried out to four counties in the provinces of Ganzhou and Jiangxi in China, during which different rural roads were visited and meetings and discussions were held with maintenance workers, staff of Municipal and County Communication Bureaus, the Ministry of Communication and the World Bank. 

2007     Cartier van Dissel, S.

This document makes a comparative analysis of existing experiences with routine road maintenance microenterprises in Latin America, identifying the main aspects which have to be taken into account in its introduction or expansion in a specific country or area, and determining the most common problems faced in the implementation of the approach. For this purpose, microenterprise-based routine road maintenance programmes in 9 countries in Latin America were studied, focusing on those aspects that were considered critical in the implementation of a routine maintenance system based on microenterprises.

2007     Cartier van Dissel, S

This document provides a bibliographic overview of the Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning (IRAP) tool, which was developed by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and has been applied in over fifteen countries around the world. For this purpose a brief Introduction to IRAP is first given, explaining the main characteristics of the tool, its history and the different forms in which it is applied. Subsequently, summaries of key documents are provided.

2007     Yeng, J.; Sosa, E. and Cartier van Dissel, S.

2007     Yeng, J.; Sosa, E. and Cartier van Dissel, S.

2006     Aguilera Alfred, N.; Cartier van Dissel, S.
Paraguay: El uso de tecnologías intensivas en empleo en las inversiones públicas. ILO Subregional Office for the South Cone of Latin America, Chile  

2005     Cartier van Dissel, S.
PIAR - Planificación Integral del Acceso Rural. ILO Subregional Office for the Andean Countries, Lima, Peru. ISBN 92-2-316533-4  

2005     Dumler Cuya, F.; Cartier van Dissel, S.
“Let’s work” - Creating jobs for the rural poor in Peru. In: ASIST Bulletin No. 19, ILO-ASIST  

2004     Quispe Remón, E.; Cartier van Dissel, S.

2004     Yeng, J.; Cartier van Dissel, S.

2004     Cartier van Dissel, S.
Programa de inversiones intensivas en empleo. Informative document developed for the Government of Argentina. ILO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, Lima, Peru  

2004     Contreras, J.; Cartier van Dissel, S.

2004     Cartier van Dissel, S.

2003     Yeng, J.; Cartier van Dissel, S.

2003     Quispe Remón, E.; Cartier van Dissel S.
Microenterprise-based road maintenance in Peru. In: ASIST Bulletin No. 15, ILO-ASIST  

2002     Cartier van Dissel, S.
Employment intensive solutions. In: IFRTD Forum news 12-1

2002     Cartier van Dissel, S.; Molz, A.
Rural road maintenance in Peru - The search for sustainability. In: ASIST Bulletin No. 13, ILO-ASIST  

2002     Cartier van Dissel, S.; Wielinga, D.
Planning with New Technologies. In: IFRTD Forum news 10-2

  1999     Cartier van Dissel, S.; Guevarra Cubas, J; Hernández Mendoza, C; Kome, A.
Participativo no es Suficiente. Working paper for the Instituto de apoyo al Manejo del Agua de Riego (IMAR-Costa Norte), Peru  

  1998     Cartier van Dissel, S.; de Graaff, J.
The Perception of Soil Erosion by Farmers and by Scientists. In: Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor  

  1998     Cartier van Dissel, S.; Kome, A.
Translating Gender Issues into Participatory Practice: Gender Integration into the Participatory Management of Natural Resources. MSc. thesis for the Department of Communication and Innovation Studies and the Department of Irrigation and Soil & Water Conservation, Wageningen Agricultural University, Holland  

  1996     Cartier van Dissel, S.
Differences in Perception: Erosion in Port Durnford, South Africa. MSc. thesis for the Department of Irrigation and Soil & Water Conservation, Wageningen Agricultural University, Holland, in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture, University of Zululand, South Africa  

  1996     Cartier van Dissel, S.
1. Soil Science SSS 215 Practical Module 1: Assessment of Soil Properties in the Field
2. Soil Science SSS 215 Practical Module 2: Assessment of Physical Soil Properties in the Lab
3. Soil Science SSS 235 Practical Module 1: Assessment of Chemical Soil Properties in the Lab
Department of Agriculture, University of Zululand, South Africa